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年薪高、消费惊人!7200万人成中国新社会阶层

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2018年12月16日 07:15:11
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(  据)(中)(共)(中)(央)(统)(战)(部)(宣)(传)(办)(消)(息)(,当)(前)(我)(国)(新)(的)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(人)(士)(的)(总)(体)(规)(模)(约)(为)(7200万)(人)(,其)(中)(党)(外)(人)(士)(占)(比)(为)(95.5%,约)(6900万)(人)(。
  什)(么)(是)(新)(的)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(?
  新)(的)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(是)(随)(着)(改)(革)(开)(放)(和)(社)(会)(主)(义)(市)(场)(经)(济)(发)(展)(,在)(非)(公)(有)(制)(经)(济)(领)(域)(和)(社)(会)(领)(域)(出)(现)(的)(一)(些)(新)(的)(社)(会)(群)(体)(。新)(的)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(人)(士)(主)(体)(是)(知)(识)(分)(子)(,主)(要)(包)(括)(民)(营)(企)(业)(和)(外)(商)(投)(资)(企)(业)(管)(理)(技)(术)(人)(员)(、中)(介)(组)(织)(和)(社)(会)(组)(织)(从)(业)(人)(员)(、自)(由)(职)(业)(人)(员)(、新)(媒)(体)(从)(业)(人)(员)(等)(。
  根)(据)(调)(研)(统)(计)(测)(算)(,新)(的)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(人)(士)(中)(,各)(群)(体)(规)(模)(分)(别)(为)(:民)(营)(企)(业)(和)(外)(商)(投)(资)(企)(业)(管)(理)(技)(术)(人)(员)(约)(4800万)(人)(;中)(介)(组)(织)(和)(社)(会)(组)(织)(从)(业)(人)(员)(约)(1400万)(人)(;自)(由)(职)(业)(人)(员)(约)(1100万)(人)(;新)(媒)(体)(从)(业)(人)(员)(约)(1000万)(人)(。由)(于)(各)(类)(群)(体)(间)(存)(在)(人)(员)(交)(叉)(现)(象)(,因)(而)(,上)(述)(数)(据)(直)(接)(加)(总)(多)(于)(7200万)(人)(。
  新)(的)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(有)(什)(么)(特)(点)(?
  2016年)(12月)(,中)(国)(社)(会)(科)(学)(院)(在)(京)(发)(布)(《2017社)(会)(蓝)(皮)(书)(》,其)(中)(也)(提)(到)(了)(新)(的)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(。
  社)(科)(院)(根)(据)(来)(源)(于)(北)(上)(广)(三)(地)(6000多)(个)(样)(本)(的)(调)(查)(进)(行)(推)(算)(,北)(京)(、上)(海)(、广)(州)(新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(人)(士)(群)(体)(规)(模)(分)(别)(为)(8.4%、14.8%、13.6%。蓝)(皮)(书)(指)(出)(,新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(的)(高)(收)(入)(、高)(消)(费)(特)(征)(明)(显)(。
  新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(特)(点)(一)(:收)(入)(高)(
  从)(个)(人)(收)(入)(来)(看)(,新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(在)(过)(去)(一)(年)(的)(平)(均)(收)(入)(达)(到)(166403元)(,远)(高)(于)(社)(会)(平)(均)(收)(入)(75184元)(,是)(其)(2.21倍)(;而)(在)(家)(庭)(收)(入)(层)(面)(上)(,新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(过)(去)(一)(年)(的)(家)(庭)(总)(收)(入)(均)(值)(达)(到)(288826元)(,是)(社)(会)(平)(均)(收)(入)(147573元)(的)(1.96倍)(。
  在)(北)(京)(、上)(海)(与)(广)(州)(三)(地)(,新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(的)(收)(入)(呈)(现)(很)(大)(的)(差)(异)(。
  从)(家)(庭)(总)(收)(入)(来)(看)(,上)(海)(的)(新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(收)(入)(最)(高)(,达)(到)(369131元)(;北)(京)(次)(之)(,为)(259978元)(;广)(州)(最)(少)(,为)(201772元)(。而)(在)(工)(资)(性)(收)(入)(方)(面)(也)(呈)(现)(类)(似)(的)(特)(征)(。
  在)(经)(营)(性)(收)(入)(和)(财)(产)(性)(收)(入)(方)(面)(,广)(州)(排)(名)(均)(为)(第)(一)(,达)(到)(38447元)(。报)(告)(称)(,“这)(可)(能)(与)(广)(州)(的)(非)(公)(有)(制)(经)(济)(活)(力)(更)(强)(、重)(商)(氛)(围)(浓)(厚)(、有)(更)(多)(的)(人)(从)(事)(经)(营)(活)(动)(和)(财)(产)(性)(活)(动)(有)(关)(。”
  新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(特)(点)(二)(:消)(费)(能)(力)(强)(
  在)(消)(费)(水)(平)(与)(消)(费)(能)(力)(方)(面)(,数)(据)(显)(示)(,北)(上)(广)(三)(地)(新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(在)(过)(去)(一)(年)(家)(庭)(总)(支)(出)(的)(平)(均)(数)(达)(到)(131459元)(,是)(社)(会)(平)(均)(水)(平)(的)(1.71倍)(。
  在)(各)(分)(项)(的)(支)(出)(方)(面)(,新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(的)(饮)(食)(支)(出)(为)(35433元)(,略)(高)(于)(社)(会)(平)(均)(水)(平)(25832元)(;服)(装)(配)(饰)(支)(出)(为)(14720元)(,比)(社)(会)(平)(均)(水)(平)(高)(92.8%;医)(疗)(支)(出)(为)(6778元)(,高)(于)(平)(均)(水)(平)(38.9%;教)(育)(支)(出)(与)(住)(房)(支)(出)(明)(显)(高)(于)(社)(会)(平)(均)(水)(平)(,分)(别)(是)(其)(1.68倍)(和)(1.40倍)(,说)(明)(相)(对)(于)(社)(会)(其)(他)(阶)(层)(来)(说)(,新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(自)(身)(的)(消)(费)(能)(力)(更)(强)(,也)(拥)(有)(更)(巨)(大)(的)(消)(费)(潜)(力)(可)(发)(掘)(。
  新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(特)(点)(三)(:经)(常)(换)(工)(作)(,生)(活)(节)(奏)(快)(
  新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(就)(业)(稳)(定)(性)(比)(较)(低)(,工)(作)(变)(动)(非)(常)(频)(繁)(。根)(据)(社)(科)(院)(的)(调)(查)(结)(果)(,三)(地)(有)(53%的)(人)(表)(示)(以)(前)(换)(过)(工)(作)(岗)(位)(,高)(于)(社)(会)(平)(均)(水)(平)(的)(37%;有)(11%和)(7%的)(人)(表)(示)(更)(换)(过)(两)(次)(或)(者)(是)(三)(次)(工)(作)(;而)(从)(未)(来)(的)(职)(业)(规)(划)(来)(看)(,很)(多)(受)(访)(者)(表)(示)(两)(年)(以)(内)(打)(算)(找)(一)(份)(新)(工)(作)(或)(者)(创)(业)(。
  新)(的)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(属)(于)(中)(产)(阶)(层)(吗)(?
  新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(的)(生)(活)(听)(起)(来)(很)(不)(错)(,但)(新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(人)(士)(中)(只)(有)(30%左)(右)(的)(受)(访)(者)(认)(为)(他)(所)(在)(的)(家)(庭)(属)(于)(中)(产)(阶)(层)(,64%的)(受)(访)(者)(认)(为)(他)(的)(家)(庭)(不)(属)(于)(中)(产)(阶)(层)(。另)(外)(,认)(为)(个)(人)(属)(于)(中)(产)(阶)(层)(的)(新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(的)(比)(例)(更)(低)(。从)(原)(因)(的)(分)(布)(上)(看)(,无)(论)(是)(家)(庭)(层)(面)(还)(是)(个)(人)(层)(面)(,新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(人)(士)(都)(认)(为)(收)(入)(水)(平)(、资)(产)(总)(量)(和)(总)(消)(费)(水)(平)(没)(有)(达)(到)(中)(产)(阶)(层)(。
  据)(了)(解)(,所)(有)(这)(些)(被)(定)(义)(的)(新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(之)(所)(以)(认)(为)(自)(己)(不)(是)(中)(产)(,可)(能)(与)(房)(价)(高)(、工)(作)(压)(力)(大)(等)(有)(关)(。比)(如)(目)(前)(北)(京)(和)(上)(海)(中)(心)(城)(区)(的)(改)(善)(型)(住)(宅)(动)(辄)(千)(万)(元)(,因)(此)(即)(便)(这)(些)(新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(收)(入)(高)(,也)(担)(负)(着)(较)(重)(的)(供)(房)(负)(担)(。
  此)(外)(,上)(述)(蓝)(皮)(书)(也)(指)(出)(,新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(的)(工)(作)(强)(度)(较)(大)(,生)(活)(节)(奏)(较)(快)(,家)(庭)(生)(活)(时)(间)(较)(少)(。从)(北)(京)(、上)(海)(与)(广)(州)(三)(地)(新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(的)(日)(常)(时)(间)(分)(配)(来)(看)(,工)(作)(日)(中)(新)(社)(会)(阶)(层)(用)(于)(工)(作)(或)(学)(习)(的)(时)(间)(达)(到)(7.76小)(时)(,远)(高)(于)(社)(会)(平)(均)(值)(的)(5.90小)(时)(,非)(工)(作)(日)(用)(于)(工)(作)(或)(学)(习)(的)(时)(间)(也)(略)(高)(于)(社)(会)(的)(平)(均)(状)(况)(。而)(这)(样)(一)(个)(工)(作)(强)(度)(,也)(让)(人)(们)(不)(愿)(承)(认)(自)(己)(属)(于)(中)(产)(阶)(层)(。
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